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Problems in Financial Management Essay

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CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FOUNDATIONS OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT – THE TIES THAT BIND TRUE/FALSE 1. The difference between the market value of the firm and the amount of money invested in the firm is known as market value added. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Market Value Added, Goal of the Firm 2. A company that wants to maximize earnings per share may either over invest or use too much debt. Answer: True; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Earnings Per Share, Goal of the Firm 3. Shareholder wealth maximization means maximizing the price of the existing common stock.

Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Shareholder Wealth, Goal of the Firm 4. It is important to evaluate all financial decisions by measuring how they affect a firm’s stock price, hence ensuring maximization of shareholder wealth. Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Shareholder Wealth Maximization 5. Business owners who want to operate as sole proprietors must request sole proprietor status and get approval from taxing authorities to pass business income to the owner’s individual tax return.

Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Sole Proprietorship, Legal Forms of Business 6. A general partnership, unlike a limited partnership, is an entity that legally functions separate and apart from its owners. Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: General Partnership, Limited Partnership, Legal Forms of Business 7. The best form of business entity to attract new capital is the sole proprietorship because investors only need to deal with one owner. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Legal Forms of Business, Sole Proprietorship 8.

S-type corporations and limited liability companies are taxed like partnerships, but have the advantage of limited liability for their owners. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Legal Forms of Business, S-Corporation, Limited Liability Company 9. Limited liability companies are more flexible than S-type Corporations because limited liability companies operate under state laws. Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Legal Forms of Business, S-Corporation, Limited Liability Company 10. A corporate treasurer is typically responsible for cash management, credit management, and raising capital.

Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Treasurer, Financial Managers 11. A financial manager must evaluate each investment project ignoring taxes because the manager has no control over the tax system. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Taxes, Relevant Cash Flows 12. Dividends received by a corporation are taxable income while dividends paid by a corporation are a tax deductible expense. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Dividends, Taxable Income 13. In order to simplify the tax code, current regulations require that a dollar of income earned by a U.

S. Corporation in the United States is taxed in the same way as a dollar of income earned by a U. S. Corporation in a foreign country. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Taxes, Foreign Income 14. Corporate managers should accept investment projects that maximize profits in the short run because of the time value of money. Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Profits, Time Value of Money 15. If two companies have the same net income and the same level of risk, they must also have the same stock price or the market is not in equilibrium.

Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Net Income, Risk, Timing of Cash Flow 16. Profit maximization is not the goal of the firm because accounting profits do not accurately measure the timing and uncertainty of a company’s cash flows. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Profits, Cash Flow 17. A limited liability company (LLC) is taxed like a partnership but provides limited liability for its owners similar to a corporation. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Limited Liability Company, Partnership, Corporation, Limited Liability 18.

The chief financial officer (CFO) is responsible for overseeing financial planning, corporate strategic planning, and controlling the firm’s cash flow. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Chief Financial Officer 19. The sole objective of the federal government in taxing income is to generate financing for government expenditures. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Federal Taxation 20. Investors will be indifferent between two investments if both investments have the same expected return. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Risk-Return Tradeoff 21.

If the stock market is efficient, then investors do not need to read the Wall Street Journal or research companies before they select which stocks to buy because market prices already reflect all publicly available information. Answer: False: Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Efficient Markets 22. Giving the company’s CEO stock options as part of his or her compensation package is an example of an agency cost. Answer: True; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Agency Costs 23. The risk of a project depends solely on the expected future cash flows it may generate and the variability of those cash flows.

Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Diversification 24. Proper diversification allows corporations to eliminate all of their risk. Answer: False: Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Diversification, Risk 25. Managers should not be concerned with business ethics because ethical behavior is inconsistent with the primary goal of maximizing shareholder value. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Ethics, Goal of the Firm 26. Due to unstable world markets, most large U. S. corporations do almost all of their business in the United States. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Multinational Firm 27.

The goal of the firm’s financial managers should be the maximization of the total value of the firm’s stock. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm 28. One of the problems associated with maximization of total current stock value is that it ignores the timing of a project’s return. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Maximizing Shareholder Value, Timing of Returns 29. Although maximization of the market value of a firm’s common stock is a valid objective of the firm, it is not without its drawbacks since the effects of financial structure decisions are not reflected in this term.

Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Financial Structure 30. One problem with maximization of shareholder wealth as a goal is that it ignores risk taken by the firm’s financial managers. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Risk 31. Only a firm’s financial decisions affect its stock prices. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Determinants of Stock Price 32. The goal of profit maximization ignores the risk of financial decisions. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Risk 33.

Shareholders react to poor investment or dividend decisions by causing the total value of the firm’s stock to fall, and they react to good decisions by bidding the price of the stock up. Answer: True; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Determinants of Stock Price 34. The risk-return tradeoff is seen in many areas of finance. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Risk, Return 35. The goal of profit maximization ignores the timing of profit. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Timing 36. The sole proprietorship has no legal business structure separate from its owner.

Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Sole Proprietorship 37. Its ability to raise capital by selling stock makes the corporation the best form of organization in terms of raising capital. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Corporation, Advantages of Corporate Form 38. There is no legal distinction made between the assets of the business and the personal assets of any of the owners in the limited partnership. Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Limited Partnership 39. The owners of a corporation enjoy limited liability. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Corporation, Limited Liability 0. Management may use straight-line depreciation for reporting income to the shareholders while still using an accelerated method for calculating taxable income. Answer: True; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Straight-Line Depreciation, Accelerated Depreciation 41. A net operating loss may be carried back three years and forward five years and applied against income in those years. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Net Operating Loss, Carryback, Carryforward 42. The interest payments on corporate bonds are tax deductible. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Interest, Bonds, Tax Deductibility 43.

The corporation is a legal entity separate from it owners; thus it is possible for the corporation to continue even upon the death of one or more shareholders. Answer: True; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Corporation, Unlimited Life 44. In a sole proprietorship, the owner is personally responsible without limitation for the liabilities incurred. Answer: True; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Sole Proprietorship, Unlimited Liability 45. The procedure by which significant changes may be made to a partnership, such as admission of a new partner or termination of the partnership, are governed by each state so no partnership agreement is needed.

Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Partnership, Partnership Agreement 46. In a limited partnership at least one general partner must exist; that general partner has unlimited liability. Answer: True; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Limited Partnership, General Partner, Unlimited Liability 47. Dividends paid to a firm’s preferred stockholders are tax deductible, while dividends paid to the common stockholders are not tax deductible to the paying company; that’s why it’s called preferred stock. Answer: False; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Dividends, Preferred Stock, Common Stock, Tax Deductible 48.

A firm may use a capital loss to offset a capital gain in the current year only. Answer: False; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Capital Loss, Capital Gain, Offset MULTIPLE CHOICE 49. The primary goal of a publicly owned corporation is to ________. a. maximize dividends per share b. maximize shareholder wealth c. maximize earnings per share after taxes d. minimize shareholder risk Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Corporation 50. Market value added is the difference between the market value of the firm and _________. a. the amount of money invested in the firm b. the liabilities of the firm . the retained earnings of the firm d. the dividends paid by the firm Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Market Value Added 51. A financial manager is considering two projects, A and B. A is expected to add $2 million to profits this year while B is expected to add $1 million to profits this year. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The manager should select project A because it maximizes profits. b. The manager should select the project that maximizes long-term profits, not just one year of profits. c. The manager should select project A or he is irrational. d.

The manager should select the project that causes the stock price to increase the most, which could be A or B. Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Goal of the Firm 52. Shareholder wealth maximization means ________. a. maximizing earnings per share b. maximizing dividends per share c. maximizing the price of existing common stock d. maximizing stockholders equity Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Shareholder Wealth Maximization 53. A limited partnership provides limited liability to ________. a. all general partners b. only limited partners responsible for day to day management of the firm c. nly to limited partners who do not participate in the management of the business d. all partners Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Limited Partnership, Legal Forms of Business 54. Joe is deciding whether or not to invest $10,000 in a business that has pending lawsuits against it. If Joe invests and the business loses the lawsuits, the most Joe can lose is __________. a. $10,000 if Joe is a general partner b. $10,000 is Joe is a sole proprietor c. $10,000 if Joe is a limited partner d. $10,000 plus his share of the lawsuits if Joe is a limited partner

Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Limited Partnership, Legal Forms of Business 55. S-type corporations have all of the following advantages except: a. they are taxed as partnerships b. the owners have limited liability c. distributions are taxed twice, similar to corporate dividend payments d. all owners must be people, no corporations Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: S-type Corporations, Legal Forms of Business 56. All of the following business organizations provide limited liability to their owners except: a. general partnership b. S-type corporation c. corporation . limited liability company Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: general partnership, legal forms of business 57. Bill, a local inventor, developed a diet pill that he believes will solve the obesity problem in the United States. Bill wants to create a new company, 50% owned by Bill and 50% owned by a major drug company. Although he believes the pills are safe, Bill is concerned about liability if someone becomes sick or dies. The best form of business organization for the new company is ________. a. sole proprietorship with Bill as owner and the drug company as creditor b. eneral partnership with Bill and the drug company as equal partners c. S-type corporation with Bill and the drug company owning equal shares d. limited liability company with Bill and the drug company owning equal shares Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Limited Liability Company, Legal Forms of Business 58. The financial manager most directly responsible for producing the company’s financial statements and directing its cost accounting functions is the _________. a. chief financial officer b. controller c. treasurer d. vice president – financer Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Controller, Financial Managers 9. Corporate dividends paid to individual investors are ________. a. taxed at the individual’s marginal tax rate b. not taxable income to the individual because the income was already taxed at the corporate level c. taxed at a fixed rate of 10% d. taxed at a maximum rate of 15% Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Double Taxation, Dividends 60. A corporate treasurer is typically responsible for each of the following duties except: a. cash management b. credit management c. capital expenditures d. cost accounting Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Treasurer, Financial Managers 61. Emery Inc. ad $5 million of gross income, operating expenses of $1 million, paid $1 million of interest on borrowing of $10 million, and paid a dividend of $0. 50 million. Emery Inc. ’s taxable income is _________. a. $3 million b. $2. 5 million c. $4 million d. $3. 5 million Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Dividends, Interest Expense 62. Use the tax rate schedule given to answer the following question: a corporation with taxable income of $150,000 faces a marginal tax rate of ________? ____________________________________________________________ _______ Corporate Tax RatesTaxable Income 15%$0 – $50,000 5%$50,001 – $75,000 34%$75,001 – $10,000,000 35%over $10,000,000 Additional surtax of 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 Additional surtax of 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 ____________________________________________________________ _________ a. 34% b. 35% c. 39% d. 40% Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Marginal Tax Rate, Surtax 63. Given the following tax rate schedule, what is the tax liability for a corporation with taxable income of $8 million? ____________________________________________________________ _______ Corporate Tax RatesTaxable Income 15%$0 – $50,000 25%$50,001 – $75,000 4%$75,001 – $10,000,000 35%over $10,000,000 Additional surtax of 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 Additional surtax of 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 ____________________________________________________________ _________ a. $2,708,250 b. $2,694,500 c. $2,720,000 d. $2,715,000 Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Tax Liability, Surtax 64. Use the tax rate schedule given to answer the following question: a corporation with taxable income of $15,000,000 has an average tax rate of ________ and a marginal tax rate of ________. ____________________________________________________________ ______ Corporate Tax RatesTaxable Income 15%$0 – $50,000 25%$50,001 – $75,000 34%$75,001 – $10,000,000 35%over $10,000,000 Additional surtax of 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 Additional surtax of 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 ____________________________________________________________ _________ a. 34%, 35% b. 34. 33%, 35% c. 35%, 38% d. 34. 33%, 38% Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Average Tax Rate, Marginal Tax Rate, Surtax 65. Use the tax rate schedule given to answer the following question: John’s corporation has taxable income of $50,000 and an average tax rate of 15%.

John can work overtime and increase the corporation’s taxable income to $70,000. If John works the overtime, the corporation’s after-tax income will be ________. ____________________________________________________________ _______ Corporate Tax RatesTaxable Income 15%$0 – $50,000 25%$50,001 – $75,000 34%$75,001 – $10,000,000 35%over $10,000,000 Additional surtax of 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 Additional surtax of 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 ____________________________________________________________ _________ a. $42,000 b. $59,500 c. $52,500 d. $57,500

Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Tax Liability, Average Tax Rate, Marginal Tax Rate 66. Corporation A received $10,000 in dividends from Corporation B. How much of the $10,000 must Corporation A include in its taxable income? a. $0, because dividends from another corporation are not taxed b. $7,000 if Corporation A owns less than 80% of Corporation B c. $2,000 if Corporation A owns between 80% and 100% of Corporation B d. $3,000 if Corporation A owns 100% of Corporation B Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Dividend Exclusion 67. Which of the following statements about depreciation is true? a.

Depreciation is a non-cash expense, but it is important because it affects a corporation’s tax liability. b. Depreciation must be calculated the same way for financial reporting and tax purposes. c. The choice of depreciation method has no impact on a firm’s value because the same amount of depreciation is taken over the life of an asset regardless of the method used. d. A shareholder wealth maximizing corporation prefers to defer depreciation expense in order to increase current reported profits. Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Depreciation Expense 68. The principle of risk-return tradeoff means that ________. . higher risk investments must earn higher returns b. an investor who takes more risk will earn a higher return c. a rational investor will only take on higher risk if he expects a higher return d. an investor who bought stock in a small corporation five years ago has more money than an investor who bought U. S. Treasury bonds five years ago Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Risk-Return Tradeoff, Expected Return, Actual Return 69. Project A is expected to generate positive cash flow of $1 million in 10 years while Project B is expected to generate $500,000 in 5 years.

Therefore, ________. a. Project A is preferred because shareholder value is based on cash flow b. Project B is preferred because its cash flow is expected to be received sooner than the cash flow from Project A c. Both projects have equal value because they average $100,000 per year d. Project B may be preferred to Project A if the opportunity cost of money is high enough Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Time Value of Money 70. Company A reports sales of $100,000 and net income of $15,000. Company B reports sales of $100,000 and net income of $10,000.

Therefore, ________. a. Company A’s cash flow may be higher or lower than Company B’s cash flow even though A’s net income is higher b. Company A’s cash flow is $5,000 more than Company B’s cash flow c. Company B is creating less value for its shareholders than Company A d. Company B’s accounts receivable must be higher than Company A’s accounts receivable Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Cash Flow, Net Income 71. Profits are down so the controller decides to change the corporation’s accounting policy relating to inventory costing.

The change will allow the corporation to report higher income and higher assets, although the physical inventory has not changed. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The stock price is likely to increase because income is higher. b. The stock price is likely to be unaffected because the stock market is efficient. c. The stock price is likely to decrease because reported inventory is higher. d. If the stock price increases, the stock market is efficient. Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Efficient Markets 72. Which of the following statements about the corporate form of business organization is true? . The corporate form has the disadvantage of double taxation relative to a sole proprietorship. b. The corporate form is preferred over the sole proprietorship because a corporation is easier to form and faces less regulation. c. Sole proprietorships are the most common form of business organization because liability is limited to the amount invested in the business by the sole proprietor. d. The corporate form has the advantage of unlimited liability. Answer: a; Difficulty 2; Keywords: Corporation, Sole Proprietorship 73. Limited partnerships are not as prevalent as corporations because ________. a.

Limited partners can lose up to three times the amount they invested in the partnership if the business goes bankrupt. b. Limited partnerships have the disadvantage of double taxation. c. The general partner has no liability, making it difficult for the partnership to borrow money. d. It is easier to transfer ownership by selling common stock than it is to sell partnership interests. Answer: d; Difficulty: 3; Keywords: Limited Partnership, Corporation 74. A corporation has an average tax rate of 25% and a marginal tax rate of 39%. The corporation can invest in a tax-free project with an expected before-tax return of 6. % or in a taxable project with an expected before-tax return of 10%. The corporation should ________. a. Invest in the taxable project because the return is greater b. Invest in the tax-free project because the after-tax return is greater c. Invest in the taxable project because the after-tax return is greater d. Be indifferent between the two investments because the after-tax returns are the same. Answer: b – using the marginal tax rate, the after-tax return of the taxable investment is 10% (1-39%) = 6. 1%; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Marginal Tax Rate, Average tax rate 75. JB Enterprises, Inc. eported the following information for 2007: Sales$4,700,000 Cost of goods sold 2,000,000 Operating expenses 1,500,000 Dividend income 200,000 Dividends paid 80,000 a. JB’s taxable income is: b. $1,260,000 c. $1,200,000 d. $1,320,000 e. $1,400,000 Answer: a — $4,700,000 – 2,000,000 – 1,500,000 + (1 – . 7)200,000 because 70% of the dividends received are excluded and dividends paid are not deductible; Difficulty: 3; Keywords: Dividends Received Exclusion, Taxable Income 76. Two companies in their first year in business, A and B, have identical operations and financial results.

The only difference is that company A depreciates its assets over 15 years using straight line depreciation and company B depreciates its assets over 10 years using straight line depreciation. (Depreciation expense is the same for both financial reporting and for tax purposes. ) Therefore, ________. a. Company A will report higher net income and higher net cash flow b. Company A will report lower net income and lower net cash flow c. Company A will report higher net income and lower net cash flow d. Company A will report lower net income and higher net cash flow

Answer: c (Company A will have lower depreciation expense, and thus higher net income. Company A will pay higher taxes, reducing its net cash flow. ); Difficulty: 3; Keywords: Depreciation, Cash Flow 77. Using the corporate tax rates shown in the table below, calculate the tax liability for a corporation with taxable income of $17 million. Taxable IncomeTax Rate $0 – $50,000 15% $50,001 – $75,000 25% $75,001 – $10,000,000 34% Over $10,000,000 35% Additional Surtax: 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 a. $5,560,000 b. $5,880,000 c. $5,910,000 . $6,460,000 Answer: c [34% times $10,000,000 plus 35% times $7,000,000 plus 3% times ($17,000,000 – $15,000,000) = $5,910,000]; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Tax Liability 78. Using the corporate tax rates shown in the table below, calculate the average tax rate and the marginal tax rate for a corporation with taxable income of $17 million. Taxable IncomeTax Rate $0 – $50,000 15% $50,001 – $75,000 25% $75,001 – $10,000,000 34% Over $10,000,000 35% Additional Surtax: 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 a. Average tax rate 34. 6%, Marginal tax rate 38% b. Average tax rate 35%, Marginal tax rate 35% c. Average tax rate 38%, Marginal tax rate 38% d. Average tax rate32. 71%, Marginal tax rate 38% Answer: a (tax liability of $5,910,000 divided by taxable income of $17 million equals 34. 76%, and with the 3% surcharge, the marginal tax rate at $17 million is 38%); Difficulty: 3; Keywords: Marginal Tax Rate, Average Tax Rate 79. John invested $1,000 in a risky investment and Bill invested $1,000 in a less risky investment. One year later, Bill’s investment is worth $1,030. Which of the following statements is most correct? a.

If John’s investment is worth less than $1,030, then John was irrational to invest in the risky project. b. John’s investment must be worth more than $1,030 because of the risk-return tradeoff, given that John’s investment was more risky. c. If John’s investment is worth more than $1,030, then Bill was irrational to invest in the less risky investment. d. The worth of John’s investment cannot be determined with the information given. Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Expected Return, Actual Return, Risk-Return Tradeoff 80. In order to reduce agency problems, managers may be provided compensation that includes: a. fixed salary so managers’ pay is not at risk, allowing managers to focus on the company’s business b. a bonus based on the level of profit achieved during the year c. an option to buy the company’s stock d. incentive pay for achieving higher sales than last year Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Agency Problem, Stock Option, Incentive Compensation 81. An investor is considering two equally risky investments. Investment A is expected to return $1,000 per year for the next 5 years. Investment B is expected to return $6,000 at the end of 5 years.

Which of the following statements is most correct if both investments A and B have the same cost? a. a risk averse investor will select investment B because it is expected to provide the most cash ($6,000 ;gt; $5,000) b. a risk averse investor will select investment A because it provides cash earlier than investment B c. the investor will select investment A only if the cost is less than $1,000 d. the investor may select investment A or investment B depending on the opportunity cost of money Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Time Value of Money, Opportunity Cost of Money 2. Nike sneakers, costing $100 a pair, are essentially the same (except for the Nike logo) as generic sneakers costing $35 a pair. Nike’s ability to make a large profit on sneakers is an example of ________. a. inefficient capital markets b. agency costs c. time value of money d. product differentiation Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Product Differentiation 83. The CEO of High Tech International decides to change an accounting method at the end of the current year. The change results in reported profits increasing by 5%, but the company’s cash flows are not changed.

If capital markets are efficient, then ________. a. the stock price will not be affected by the accounting change b. the stock price will increase due to higher profits c. the stock price will increase only if the accounting change will also result in higher profits in the next year d. the stock price will decrease because accounting method changes are not permitted under generally accepted accounting principles Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Efficient Markets 84. Two assets, A and B, have the same expected return (10%) and the same level of risk (average).

Which of the following statements is true? a. A rational investor is indifferent between investing 100% in A, 100% in B, or a combination of A and B, because the return and risk will be the same. b. A rational investor will either put 100% of her funds into asset A or 100% of her funds into asset B because the return will be the same but the investor will not have to track two separate investments. c. A combination of assets A and B will result in the same expected return (10%) as investing 100% in A or 100% in B, but the risk will increase because now two investments are at risk. . A combination of assets A and B will have the same expected return (10%) as either asset A or asset B, but may have less than average risk depending on how the cash flows from each asset move together. Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Diversification, Expected Return, Risk 85. When evaluating an investment project, which of the following best describes the financial information needed by the decision maker? a. after-tax accounting profits b. after-tax incremental cash flows to the company as a whole c. ncremental cash flows before taxes so the decision will not be biased by a tax code that may change in the future d. pre-tax accounting profits adjusted for any accounting method changes Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: After-Tax Incremental Cash Flows 86. The CEO of JLI Corp. decided to expand into a new market in 2008. At the end of 2008, JLI’s stock price had decreased 5% since the beginning of the year. Which of the following statements is most correct? a. The CEO made a poor decision to expand because the stock price decreased during the year. b.

The CEO made a poor decision to expand because the company’s profits for the year obviously decreased, causing the drop in stock price. c. The CEO’s decision may have been optimal, keeping the stock price from falling more than 5% for the year. d. CEO decisions are irrelevant because the efficient market determines the value of a company’s stock. Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Stock Price Maximization, Efficient Markets 87. High Tech Corp. cut its research and development budget in 2008 by $4,000,000 in order to improve its cash flow for the year. Which of the following statements is most correct? . The stock price will likely increase because the value of stock is based on reported cash flow. b. The stock price may decrease because investors may predict that future cash flows will decrease due to the lack of innovation and new products. c. The change will have no impact on stock price because the company’s profits will not change in 2008. d. The stock price will increase only if reported profits in 2009 are also higher than profits reported in 2007. Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Stock Price, Cash Flow 88. The curse of competitive markets ________. a. eans that companies cannot earn exceptional profits b. means that money spent on innovation is wasted because competitors will rush in and eliminate any excess profits c. may be lessened by obtaining patents for new ideas that protect companies from competitors d. implies that profitable industries will become smaller as companies drop out to avoid competition Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Curse of Competitive Markets, Patents, Axioms of Finance 89. In which of the following cases will the agency problem between shareholders and managers be the greatest? a. 00% of the common stock is owned by the founder of the company who decided to retire and hired a manager to run his business for him. b. The Johnson family owns 50% of the common stock of the company. The other 50% is owned by 5 mutual funds. c. The common stock of the company is owned by many diverse shareholders, with no shareholder owning more than 1% of the outstanding stock. d. All top managers in the company own significant amounts of stock and stock options. Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Agency Problems 90. The goal of the firm should be ________. a. maximization of profits (net income per share) . maximization of shareholder wealth c. maximization of market share d. maximization of sales Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Maximize Shareholder Wealth 91. Consider the following equally likely project outcomes: Profit X Y Pessimistic prediction $ 0 $500 Expected outcome $ 500 $500 Optimistic prediction $1000 $500 a. Project X has more uncertainty than Project Y. b. Project X has less uncertainty than Project Y. c. X and Y have the same level of uncertainty. d. Since Projects X and Y have the same expected outcomes of $500, nvestors will view them as identical in value. Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Risk, Uncertainty 92. Maximization of shareholder wealth as a goal is superior to profit maximization because ________. a. it considers the time value of the money b. following the goal of shareholder wealth maximization will ensure high stock prices c. it considers uncertainty d. both A and C Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Maximize Shareholder Wealth 93. Profit maximization does not adequately describe the goal of the firm because ________. a. profit maximization does not require the consideration of risk b. rofit maximization ignores the timing of a project’s return c. maximization of dividend payout ratio is a better description of the goal of the firm d. both A and B Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Profit Maximization 94. Which of the following goals of the firm are synonymous (equivalent) to the maximization of shareholder wealth? a. profit maximization b. risk minimization c. maximization of the total market value of the firm’s common stock d. none of the above Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Maximize Shareholder Wealth 95.

If an investor is said to be “risk averse” then that investor ________. a. will not be induced to take on any risk b. will only take on the least risk possible c. will only take on additional risk if they expect to be compensated in the form of additional return d. is not behaving in a typical manner Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Risk Aversion 96. In finance, we assume that investors are generally ________. a. neutral to risk b. averse to risk c. fond of risk d. none of the above Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Risk Aversion 97. Consider the after-tax cash flows for projects s and l:

Project s Project l Year 1 $3000 0 Year 2 0 $3000 A rational person would prefer ________. a. project s because the money can be reinvested sooner b. project l because they can avoid taxes by receiving cash flows later c. information about profits instead of cash flows d. neither investment over the other Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: After-Tax Cash Flows, Time Value of Money 98. Which of the following is an advantage of the sole proprietorship? a. limited liability for its owners b. double taxation for its owners c. o significant legal requirements for starting the business d. easily transferred ownership Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Sole Proprietorship 99. Which of the following is not true for a limited partnership? a. Limited partners can only manage the business. b. One general partner must exist who has unlimited liability. c. Only the name of general partners can appear in the name of the firm. d. Limited partners may sell their interest in the company. Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Limited Partnership, General Partner, Limited Partners 100. The true owners of the corporation are the ________. a. olders of debt issues of the firm b. preferred stockholders c. board of directors of the firm d. common stockholders Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Stockholders, Corporation 101. In terms of the costs to organize each, which of the following sequences is correct, moving from highest to lowest cost? a. general partnership, sole proprietorship, limited partnership, corporation b. sole proprietorship, general partnership, limited partnership, corporation c. corporation, limited partnership, general partnership, sole proprietorship d. sole proprietorship, general partnership, corporation, limited partnership

Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Organizational Form 102. Revenues are taxed ________. a. for economic stabilization b. to achieve socially desirable goals c. to provide revenues for government expenditures d. all of the above Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Taxation 103. Abey, Inc. owns 5% of the common stock in the Sea Company. Abey received $100,000 in dividends during 2007 on its investment in Sea. What amount will Abey include in taxable income, and what amount will Sea deduct, respectively? a. $30,000; $0 b. $30,000; $100,000 c. $70,000; $100,000 d. $100,000; $100,000 e. $100,000; $0

Answer: a; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Dividends Received Exclusion, Taxable Income 104. A corporation’s capital losses can be carried back three years and, if any loss still remains, it may be carried forward ________. a. 1 year b. 3 years c. 5 years d. 7 years Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Capital Loss Carryback, Capital Loss Carryforward 105. Which of the following are tax-deductible for a corporation? a. common stock dividends b. interest expense c. preferred stock dividends d. all of the above e. both A and B Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Tax-Deductible Expenses, Dividends 06. Genny, Inc. received $80,000 in dividends during 2007 from its stock investment in Cary Company. How much of the dividends are excluded from Genny’s taxable income? a. $24,000 b. none c. $56,000 d. $80,000 Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Dividends Received Exclusion, Taxable Income 107. Which of the following categories of owners enjoy limited liability? a. all partners in a limited partnership b. common shareholders of a corporation c. in a partnership, only the general partners d. only B and C above Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Limited Liability, Organizational Form 108.

Which of the following categories of owners have unlimited liability? a. general partners in a limited partnership b. sole proprietors c. shareholders of a corporation d. both A and B Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Unlimited Liability, Limited Partnership, Sole Proprietorship, Corporation 109. Which of the following are characteristics of a limited partnership? a. limited partners may not participate in the management of the limited partnership b. there must be one or more general partners c. general partners have unlimited liability d. all of the above Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Limited Partnership 10. Which of the following forms of organizations have earnings that are taxed twice, once as business income and once as personal income as the earnings are distributed to the owners in the form of dividends? a. corporations b. general partnerships c. limited partnerships d. both A and C Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Double Taxation, Corporation 111. Which of the following categories of owners have limited liability? a. general partners b. sole proprietors c. shareholders of a corporation d. both A and B Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Limited Liability, Organizational Form 112.

Which of the following forms of business organizations provide limited liability to all its owners? a. general partnership b. limited partnership c. corporation d. both B and C Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Organizational Form, Limited Liability 113. All of the following forms of business organizations provide limited liability to all owners except: a. Limited Liability Company b. S-Type Corporation c. Corporation d. Limited Partnership Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Organizational Form, Limited Partnership, S-Type Corporation, Limited Liability Company 114. Which of the statements below are true? a.

The sole proprietorship and the general partnership both feature unlimited liability. b. A corporation is the business form that is typically the most complicated (legally) to establish. c. The corporation and the limited partnership both provide at least some owners with limited liability. d. all of the above Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, Corporation 115. Advantages of the corporate form of business organization include: a. easier transfer of ownership b. double taxation c. minimal legal requirements d. none of the above Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Corporation, Organizational Form 16. Which form of organization is free of initial legal requirements? a. sole proprietorship b. general partnership c. corporation d. both A and B Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Organizational Form 117. Which of the following is the most important goal that a corporation should strive for? a. maximize current profits b. maximize market share c. maximize revenue d. maximize shareholder wealth Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Maximize Shareholder Wealth 118. As business goals go, maximization of profits is worthy but it does not adequately consider which of the following? a. ncome taxes b. time frame over which profits are to be measured c. increases in the cost of raw materials d. changes in sales revenues Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Profit Maximization 119. Which of the following forms of business organization limits the liability of owners? a. sole proprietorship b. general partnership c. corporation d. two person partnership Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Organizational Form, Limited Liability, Corporation 120. Which of the following forms of business organization has the greatest ability to attract new capital? a. sole proprietorship . corporation c. general partnership d. limited partnership Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Organizational Form, Corporation 121. Which of the following is not considered to be a disadvantage of the sole proprietorship form of business organization? a. limited ability to raise capital b. life is limited to that of the owner c. unlimited liability of business owners d. fewer regulations and reporting requirements Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Sole Proprietorship, Organizational Form 122. Which of the following is an advantage of the general partnership form of business organization? a. imited liability of business owners b. low cost of formation c. easy ability to raise capital d. double taxation Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Organizational Form, Partnership 123. Which of the following is not a deductible business expense for income tax purposes? a. cost of goods sold b. dividends c. depreciation d. interest Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Tax-Deductible Expenses 124. If a corporation has operating income of $10,500,000 and it receives $245,000 in interest income and $312,000 in dividend income, what is the firm’s taxable income? a. $11,057,000 b. $10,812,000 c. $10,838,600 d. $9,838,600

Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Dividend Received Exclusion 125. Assume that Javier Corporation has operating income of $17,500,000 and it receives $750,000 in interest income and $800,000 in dividend income. Assume that the firm pays a flat 40% income tax rate. What is the firm’s income tax liability? a. $7,300,000 b. $7,396,000 c. $7,620,000 d. none of the above Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Tax Liability, Dividend Received Exclusion 126. A corporation has operating income of $12,000,000 and it receives $800,000 in interest income and $1,200,000 in dividend income.

It has $1,000,000 in capital gains and $2,000,000 in capital losses for the year. What is the corporation’s taxable income? a. $15,000,000 b. $14,160,000 c. $13,160,000 d. $13,000,000 Answer: c; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Dividends Received Exclusion, Capital Losses 127. A corporation may normally exclude what percentage of dividend income received from another corporation? a. 70% b. 50% c. 35% d. 30% Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Dividends Received Exclusion 128. Assume that GAR Corporation had sales of $15 million; its cost of goods sold was $9 million; and it incurred operating expenses of $4. million and an additional $300,000 in interest expense. In addition, it received interest income of $300,000 and dividend income of $400,000. Assume that the firm pays income taxes at the rate of 40%. What is GAR’s income tax liability? a. $480,000 b. $648,000 c. $760,000 d. $880,000 Answer: b; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Tax Liability, Dividend Received Exclusion 129. Assume that Wurst Corporation had sales of $85 million; its cost of goods sold was $60 million; and it incurred operating expenses of $13 million. In addition, it received interest income of $900,000 and dividend income of $750,000.

Assume that the firm pays income taxes at the rate of 40%. What is Wurst’s income tax liability? a. $5,460,000 b. $4,800,000 c. $6,210,000 d. $5,250,000 Answer: d; Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Tax Liability, Dividend Received Exclusion 130. Assume that an investor is offered a choice of a risk-free government bond or a high-risk corporate stock. Further assume that the expected return is the same for both. According to one of the axioms of finance, which investment would be chosen? a. the corporate stock b. the government bond c. neither, the investor would be indifferent d. one of the above Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Risk/Return Tradeoff 131. Assume that an investor is offered a choice of a risk-free government bond that is expected to return 3. 5% or a high-risk corporate stock. According to one of the axioms of finance, what would induce the investor to purchase the corporate stock? a. a return that is substantially lower than 3. 5% b. cash dividends c. a return that is substantially higher than 3. 5% d. none of the above Answer: c; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Risk/Return Tradeoff 132. Assume that you went to Las Vegas and hit the jackpot for $5 million.

Further assume that you were offered a choice to receive the $5 million today, or receive it in two years. According to one of the axioms of finance, which would you take? a. The $5 million in two years because you would be afraid of spending it all right away. b. The $5 million in two years because it would be worth more than if you would receive it today. c. You would be indifferent as to when you would receive the $5 million. d. The $5 million today because it would be worth more than if you would receive it in two years. Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Time Value of Money 33. Assume that you won the Lotta Dough Lotto jackpot for $20 million. Further assume that you were offered a choice to receive the $20 million today, or receive it in equal installments of $1 million per year for 20 years. According to one of the axioms of finance, which would you take? a. The $20 million in equal installments of $1 million per year for 20 years because you would be afraid of spending it all right away. b. The $20 million today because it would be worth more than if you would receive it in equal installments of $1 million per year for 20 years. c.

You would be indifferent as to when you would receive the $20 million since the total number of dollars received is the same either way. d. The $20 million in equal installments of $1 million per year for 20 years because it would be worth more than if you would receive it today. Answer: b; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Time Value of Money 134. Which of the following statements best represents the “Agency Problem”? a. managers might attempt to benefit themselves in terms of salary and perquisites at the expense of shareholders b. the agency problem results from the separation of management and the ownership of the firm c. he agency problem may interfere with the implementation of maximizing shareholder wealth d. all of the above Answer: d; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Agency Problem 135. All risk is not equal because ________. a. some can be diversified away and some cannot b. some risk is free while some is not c. some risk is too small to be considered d. none of the above Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Diversifiable Risk 136. In making financial decisions, the relevant tax rate is the ________. a. marginal tax rate b. average (effective) tax rate c. previous year’s tax rate . maximum allowable tax rate Answer: a; Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Marginal Tax Rate, Average Tax Rate ESSAY 137. Microsoft Corporation has been able to generate high returns over a long period of time. Discuss how this is possible considering principle 5 – the curse of competitive markets. Answer: Microsoft has competitive advantages. They were first to market and this allowed them to achieve a dominant position in their industry. The cash flow generated by this dominance has allowed the company to spend huge sums on research and development to protect their position.

The dominance of the windows operating system also makes it difficult for others to create software or other products not compatible with Microsoft products. There has been a reduction in Microsoft’s grip on the industry due to successful antitrust challenges that have reduced their competitive advantages. Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Competitive Markets, Competitive Advantage, Antitrust 138. D&D, Inc. reported the following results for 2007. Calculate D&D’s taxable income and resulting tax liability using the tax rates given. Sales$20,000,000 Cost of sales 8,000,000 Operating expenses 1,000,000

Depreciation expense 500,000 Interest expense 1,500,000 Common stock dividends paid 500,000 Dividends received from Corporation Z (D&D owns 10% of Corporation Z) 100,000 ____________________________________________________________ _______ Corporate Tax RatesTaxable Income 15%$0 – $50,000 25%$50,001 – $75,000 34%$75,001 – $10,000,000 35%over $10,000,000 Additional surtax of 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 Additional surtax of 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 ____________________________________________________________ ________ Answer: Sales$20,000,000 Cost of sales 8,000,000 Gross profit$12,000,000 Operating expense 1,000,000 Depreciation expense 500,000 EBIT $10,500,000 Interest Expense 1,500,000 Taxable income $ 9,000,000 Tax liability: $9,000,000 x 34% = $3,060,000 Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Computing Taxable Income, Computing the Taxes Owed 139. Joe’s Construction Corporation was formed in 2004. Due to the nature of the construction industry, the firm has experienced fluctuating profits since that time. The taxable income for each year is given below.

Compute the appropriate tax payments and refunds for each year using the tax rate schedule given. 2004($70,000) 2005 $60,000 2006 $40,000 2007($30,000) ____________________________________________________________ _______ Corporate Tax RatesTaxable Income 15%$0 – $50,000 25%$50,001 – $75,000 34%$75,001 – $10,000,000 35%over $10,000,000 Additional surtax of 5% on income between $100,000 and $335,000 Additional surtax of 3% on income between $15,000,000 and $18,333,333 ____________________________________________________________ _________ Answer:

Year 2004 – no taxes due – carry 70,000 loss forward to 2005 Year 2005 – no taxes due – 10,000 of loss from 2004 still carried forward Year 2006 – tax payment of $5,000 taxable income = $40,000 -10,000 (portion of 2004 loss remaining) $30,000 tax payment = (. 15)($25,000) = $ 3,750 (. 25)($5,000) = 1,2,50 Total tax payment $ 5,000 Year 2007 – tax refund of $5,000 Carry loss back to 2006. Taxable income in 2006 is then reduced to $30,000 – $30,000 (loss carryback) = $0. The tax refund will equal the total tax paid of $5,000. Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Tax Loss, Carryback, and Carryforward 140.

The Glenna Gayle Company (GGC) had sales of $400,000 in the past year, with operating expenses of $120,000 and cost of goods sold of $70,000. Interest expense was $30,000, and $10,000 in common stock dividends were received. The company had $20,000 in capital gains and $30,000 in capital losses during the year. Compute the taxable income of GGC and its tax liability. Answer: Taxable Income Sales $400,000 – operating expenses (120,000) – Cost of goods sold ( 70,000) Operating income 210,000 – interest expense ( 30,000) + taxable dividend (30%) 3,000 Ordinary income 183,000 = taxable income the net capital loss of 10,000 is not deductible, but could be carried back or forward) Tax liability = (. 15)(50,000)+(. 25)(25,000)+(. 34)(108,000) + (. 05)(83,000) = 7,500 + 6,250 + 36,720 + 4,150 = 54,620 Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Taxable Income, Tax Liability, Dividends Received Exclusion, Capital Gains and Losses 141. Venus, Inc. had sales in 2007 of $2 million dollars. The common stockholders received $400,000 in cash dividends and preferred stockholders were paid $200,000. Interest expense was $150,000 while operating expenses totaled $600,000, and cost of goods sold was $500,000.

Dividends of $200,000 were received on the company’s investment in Serena, Inc. What is the tax liability of Venus, Inc.? Answer: Sales$2,000,000 – Cost of goods sold (500,000) – Operating expenses (600,000) – Interest expense (150,000) + Taxable dividend inc. 60,000 (30% of $200,000) Taxable income 810,000 Tax liability = (. 15) (50,000) + (. 25) ( 25,000) + (. 34) ( 735,000) + (. 05) ( 235,000) = 7,500 + 6,250 + 249,900 + 11,750 = 275,400 Difficulty: 2; Keyword(s): Taxable Income, Tax Liability, Dividends Received Exclusion 142. A corporation has a capital loss.

Is it deductible for income tax purposes? Explain fully. Answer: A corporation may use a capital loss to offset capital gains in the current year, thereby reducing taxable income in that year. If any capital loss remains it may be carried back three years and then carried forward five years until the capital loss has been used to offset capital gains. Any unused loss within the prescribed time period is lost. Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Capital Gains and Losses 143. The manager of Golden Ray Corporation receives a bonus if company profits exceed $1,000,000 this year.

During the final week of the year, the manager changes an accounting policy that will increase reported profits from $950,000 to $1,025,000, triggering his bonus. The change in profits of $75,000 will reverse itself in the next year, and the accounting change has no impact on Golden Ray’s cash flow. Discuss the above situation as it relates to both an agency problem and efficient markets. Answer: An agency problem exists when a manager (agent) acts in his or her own self-interest rather than in the best interests of the shareholders (principals).

In order to reduce agency problems, management activity may be monitored, such as through audits and performance reviews, and management compensation can be designed to align the interests of the managers with the interests of the shareholders. A bonus based on profits encourages the manager to focus on profits, rather than on shareholder value. A better compensation scheme may include direct stock ownership by managers, stock options for managers, or performance incentives based on the company’s stock price.

Given efficient markets, one would expect the increase in profits to have little effect on the company’s stock price. Stock values are based on cash flows, not profits, and the stock market is not fooled by an accounting change that artificially increases short-term profits. In this case, the stock price could go down because the company has to pay higher compensation to the manager even though the company’s cash flows have not increased. Difficulty: 3; Keywords: Agency Problem, Efficient Markets, Incentive Alignment, Cash Flow Versus Profits 144.

Documents uncovered after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska revealed that Exxon could have used double-hulled oil tankers that would have prevented the spill, but the cost of refitting their fleet of single-hulled tankers was considered too high. Exxon determined that the cost of cleaning up an oil spill would be less than the cost of refitting the ships, thus increasing shareholder value. Several years after the oil spill, however, Exxon was fined billions of dollars for the spill. How do the costs of the clean up and the fines pertain to a discussion of maximizing shareholder value and social responsibility?

Answer: Managers are supposed to maximize shareholder value. Exxon’s analysis of the costs of an oil spill versus the cost of improving their tankers seems to have been a reasonable one at the time it was undertaken. The social costs of killing birds and fish were expected to be low. The outrage at Exxon’s conduct and the subsequent large fines will change the estimation of future costs for similar situations. Managers need to consider the impact of their decisions on their companies’ cash flows. Socially undesirable activities may lead to boycotts, protests, lower sales, fines, etc.

These costs must be included in their analyses. Society sets limits within which corporations must operate or the corporations, and their shareholders, will suffer. Therefore, acting in ethical and socially responsible ways is congruent with the goal of shareholder wealth maximization. Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Goal of the Firm, Maximizing Shareholder Value, Social Responsibility, Cash Flow 145. Your friend Ricky took a finance class and learned about the risk/return tradeoff. Wanting a high return, Ricky invested in a risky, start-up technology company. A year later the company went bankrupt and Ricky lost his entire investment.

Ricky is furious with his finance professor for misleading him, claiming he was taught that higher return goes with higher risk. Explain how Ricky misinterpreted the risk/return tradeoff. Answer: The risk/return tradeoff deals with expected returns, not actual returns. For risk averse investors, higher expected returns are required before they will take on higher risks. However, higher expected returns do not always materialize. Risky projects sometimes result in lower actual returns. This is what makes them risky. Difficulty: 1; Keywords: Risk/Return Tradeoff, Actual Return, Expected Return, Risk 146.

The board of directors of Wireless, Inc. is considering two compensation plans for the CEO of the company. The first would pay the CEO a salary of $250,000 for the upcoming year. The second would pay the CEO a salary of $100,000 and provide the CEO with a stock option to buy 100,000 shares of stock for $11 per share. The current price per share of Wireless, Inc. stock is $10 per share. The stock option expires at the end of the year. Why might shareholders prefer the second payment plan? As part of your answer, calculate the breakeven point for the CEO to obtain the same compensation under option two as he or she would under option one.

Answer: Shareholders may prefer the compensation package that includes stock options because the options give the CEO the incentive to maximize the price of the company’s stock, thus benefiting the shareholders. A fixed salary, regardless of stock price performance, can lead to a CEO who is willing to do the minimum necessary to maintain the job, but who is not motivated to work extra hard for the shareholders. For every dollar the price of the stock exceeds $11 per share, the CEO will make an additional $100,000. Thus, if the share price increases to $12. 50, the profit on the stock option [($12. 0 – $11. 00) x 100,000 shares] of $150,000 plus the fixed salary of $100,000 will equal the total compensation from option one of $250,000. Stock options help to align the incentives of managers with the goals of shareholders. Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Agency Costs, Incentive Alignment, Stock Options 147. Your friend, John, believes that since capital markets are efficient, he doesn’t need to read the financial press or be involved in stock research before purchasing stocks for his portfolio. He simply throws darts at the stock pages and buys the stocks the darts hit.

Is stock research and analysis important when buying and selling stocks in an efficient market? Answer: Yes! Efficient capital markets theory suggests that investors will not be able to outperform the market in the long-run using just publicly available information. This is due to the fact that market prices very quickly adjust to information. If an investor only knows what all other investors know, then he or she cannot use that information to earn abnormal returns. However, an uninformed investor can certainly underperform the market. Difficulty: 2; Keywords: Efficient Capital Markets