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Causes and Spread of Infection Essay

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Section Two: Task 1 1. 1 Identity the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites MICRO-ORGANISMS BACTERIA – Bacteria are forms of spores that can multiply, some bacteria’s are difficult to destroy and are able to survive for long periods. Bacteria cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, however all bacteria’s have the same basic structure, below is a image of bacteria cell with labels identifying what a bacteria cell consists of: VIRUSES – viruses are smaller than bacteria and can only be seen under a microscope, they can only multiply in living cells.

A virus is a simple structure. It is not a cell nor is it living. A virus is simply a coat of protein wrapped around genetic material. Below is an image of a virus and its structure, with labels identifying what a virus is made up off: FUNGI – A fungi/fungus is an organism which lives by feeding on other organisms, below is an image of a fungi and its structure, with labels identifying what a fungi is made up of: PARASITES – A parasite is a plant or animal which lives on or in another plant or animal as a host. Below is an image of a parasite with labels to identify its structure: 1. Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Below is a table of common illnesses and infections caused by either, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, each illness is displayed in the causing micro-organism: Bacteria: Tuberculosis (two organisms called Mycobacterium tuberculosis)MRSA  (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)SalmonellaClostridium difficile (pain and diarrhoea)Legionnaires disease (belong to the family Legionellaceae)| Viruses: Measles (rubeola virus)Common cold (caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses)Warts (human papilloma virus)HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)Chicken pox (caused by a virus called the varicella-zoster virus)Hepatitis B ( belongs in the genus Orthohepadnavirus and is part of Group VII-type viruses)Influenza (belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family)| Fungi:Athletes foot (caused by one group of fungi called dermatophytes)Thrush (caused by the Candida fungus)| Parasites:Scabies (tiny mite, area of infection secondary infected with bacteria)Head lice RoundwormLiceFleasRingworm | 1.

3 Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation An infection is a multiplication of micro-organisms in the living tissue, colonisation is the presence and multiplication off micro organism in or on the body without tissue damage. 1. Explain what is meant by systemic infection and localised infection A systemic infection is a bacteria or virus that affects the blood stream of an individual with the result that spreads to the whole of the body. A localised infection is that it is limited to a specific part of the body and has local symptoms. 1. 5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection There are a number of poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection; these include some of the follow: a) Not washing hands before eating and after eating food b) Not washing hands after using the toilet c) Not washing hands before and after preparing food d) Not washing hands before and after each task e) Not washing hands properly and thoroughly f) Poor personal hygiene g) Not washing body regularly, properly and thoroughly ) Not washing surfaces and areas working and living in i) Not covering the mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing j) Not washing hands after covering mouth and nose k) Not washing hands after touching another part of the body l) Not washing hands after touching someone else m) Not wearing personal protective clothing when provided n) Not using personal protective equipment when provided o) Not following policies and procedures with PPE and hygiene and cleanliness p) Not separating and storing items correctly q) Not applying and wearing protection during sexual intercourse and sexual acts Information from Wikipedia, the infection control handbook Images from google images