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AP US History American Civil War Vocabulary Terms Essay

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1. Harriet Beecher Stowe – was an American abolitionist and author. Her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a depiction of life for African-Americans under slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play 2. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – anti-slavery book which alarmed previously unconcerned Northerners and the rest of the world about slavery. 3. Hinton helper – book entitled ‘Impending Crisis of the South’ that stirred trouble. Attempted to prove that indirectly the non-slaveholding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery; the book was banned in the South but countless copies were distributed as campaign material for republicans

4. New england emigrant aid company – 1854 was created to pay anti-slavery settlers to go into Kansas, so when the state voted on whether or not to allow slavery the vote would be on the anti-slavery side. 5. Henry ward beecher – United States clergyman who was a leader for the abolition of slavery 6. John brown – was a militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear. In May of 1856, Brown led a group of his followers to Pottawatomie Creek and launched a bloody attack against pro-slavery men killing five people.

This began violent retaliation against Brown and his followers. This violent attack against slavery helped give Kansas its nickname, “bleeding Kansas”. 7. Pottawatomie creek – the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces, 8. Lecompton Constitution – Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election 9. Buchanan veto – he vetoed the Homestead Act because he felt that the homestead movement would destroy land values and stimulate westward migration.

10. Douglas reservations – He felt that Buchanan was wrong and unfair 11. Sen. Charles Summer – Most disliked. Delivered the speech “crime against Kansas”. 12. Sen. Preston Brooks – he went up to Sumner and pounded on the orator with a cane and the victim fell to the floor bleeding. 13. 1856 election – James Buchanan was elected 14. James Buchanan- fifteenth president of america 15. John c Fremont – Romantic western hero and the first Republican presidential candidate 16. American (“know nothing”) party – against immigrants

17. Dred Scott – a slave that wanted his freedom and sued his owner 18. Chief justice roger b Taney – He was Chief Justice for the Dred Scott case. A decision was made on March 6, 1857. Roger Taney ruled against Dred Scott. Scott was suing for freedom because of his long residence in free territory. He was denied freedom because he was property and his owner could take him into any territory and legally hold him as a slave. This court ruling was major cause in starting the Civil War. 19. Dred Scott decision – his freedom was denied

20. Crash of 1857 – The California gold rush increased inflation; speculation in land and railroads “ripped economic fabric”; hit the North harder than South because the South had cotton as a staple source of income; the North wanted free land from the government; drove Southerners closer to a showdown; caused an increase in tariffs; gave Republicans an issue for the election of 1860. 21. Homestead act – gave an applicant freehold title to up to 160 acres 22. Tariff of 1857 – a major tax reduction in the United States, creating a mid-century lowpoint for tariffs. 23. Abraham Lincoln – Senator and soon to be president

24. Lincoln Douglas debates – 25. The “little giant” – Lincoln challenged Stephen Douglas to a series of 7 debates. Though Douglas won the senate seat, these debates gave Lincoln fame and helped him to later on win the presidency. These debates were a foreshadowing of the Civil War. 26. Freeport doctrine – occurred in Freeport, Illinois during the debates of Lincoln and Douglas for senator. This was a question that Lincoln asked Douglas that made Douglas answer in such a way that the South would know that he was not truly supporting them. 27. John brown – was a militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear.

In May of 1856, Brown led a group of his followers to Pottawattamie Creek and launched a bloody attack against pro-slavery men killing five people. This began violent retaliation against Brown and his followers. This violent attack against slavery helped give Kansas its nick name, “bleeding Kansas”. 28. Harpers ferry raid– Occurred in October of 1859. John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a major revolt among the slaves. He wanted to ride down the river and provide the slaves with arms from the North, but he failed to get the slaves organized. Brown was captured.

The effects of Harper’s Ferry Raid were as such: the South saw the act as one of treason and were encouraged to separate from the North, and Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause. 29. 1860 election – Lincoln wasn’t even shown on the ballots in the southern states yet he still managed to become president 30. Douglas – candidate for the democrats 31. John c Breckinridge – Buchanan’s vice president, nominated for president by breakaway of southern Democrats in 1860 32. John bell – Nominated for presidency in 1860 by the Constitutional Union Party, which formed a split in the Union.

He was a compromise candidate. 33. William h Seward – arranged for the purchase of Alaska from russia 34. Lincoln – Became 16th president of America 35. South Carolina secession – seceded first 36. Confederate states of America – didn’t feel as a part of the united states so they seceded and became 37. Jefferson Davis – President of the confederate states 38. Senator James Henry Crittenden – proposed to amend the Constitution to extend the old 36°30′ line to the Pacific. 39. Crittenden compromise attempt – A last-ditch plan to save the Union by providing guarantees for slavery in the territories